Performance of Concrete Materials Containing Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Waste in India


  • Dr. Devesh Ojha Department of Civil Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and Technology Lucknow, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Rajendra Kr. Srivastava Retired Engineer in Chief UP P.W.D. and Retired M.D. U.P. Bridge Corporation, India



Recycled concrete aggregate, Recycled aggregate concrete, Mechanical behaviour, Durability property


The recycling and reuse of waste concrete in India have gained significant momentum as sustainable construction practices are increasingly prioritized. This abstract provides a concise overview of the current state of recycling and reuse of waste concrete in India, with a focus on the relevant provisions of the Indian Standard (IS) codes. In-dia produces a substantial amount of construction and demolition waste, including concrete. The IS codes, such as IS 2386 Part 1:1963, IS 2386 Part 3:1963, and IS 456:2000, play a crucial role in guiding the testing, evaluation, and usage of recycled concrete materials. IS 2386 Part 1:1963 outlines testing procedures for aggregates, including recycled aggregates derived from waste concrete. These tests assess properties like particle size distribution, specific gravity, water absorption, and crushing strength to ensure the quality and suitability of recycled aggregates. IS 2386 Part 3:1963 provides methods for testing the compressive strength of concrete cubes made with recycled aggregates. This allows for evaluating the structural performance of recycled concrete. IS 456:2000, the Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete, includes provisions for using recycled aggregates in concrete. It establishes maximum limits for replacing natural aggregates with recycled aggregates, ensuring the durability and strength of the resulting concrete. While the IS codes provide essential guidance, challenges remain, including awareness among stakeholders, standardized testing procedures, and the development of appropriate recycling infra-structure. In conclusion, adherence to IS codal provisions supports the recycling and reuse of waste concrete in India, promoting sustainable practices and contributing to a greener construction industry.


Download data is not yet available.


British Standards Institution, "BS 8500-2:2002. Concrete-Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1. Part 2. Specifi-cation for constituent materials and concrete," 2002.

CEB, "CEB-FIP Model code 1990," Bulletin, no. 213/214, Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 1993.

L. Zhang, J. Wang, Q. Huang, and Y. Deng, "Experimental study on frost-resistant durability of recycled concrete," Chinese Journal of Industrial Construction, vol. 35, pp. 64–66, 2005.

L. Zhang, "Use of waste concrete as aggregates," Construction Technology, vol. 7, pp. 45–46, 1978.

Z. Xing and Y. Zhou, "Basic behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete," Journal of China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, vol. 19, pp. 30–32, 1998.

J. Xiao, P. Li, and W. Qin, "Study on bond–slip between recycled aggregate concrete and rebars," Journal of Tongji Univer-sity, vol. 34, pp. 13–16, 2006.

J. Xiao et al., "Study on compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete," Journal of Tongji University, vol. 32, pp. 1558–1561, 2004.

J. Xiao et al., "Study on chloride ion penetration resistance of recycled aggregate concrete," Shandong Building Materials, vol. 25, pp. 31–33, 2004.

J. Xiao and J. Li, "Study on relationships between strength indexes of recycled concrete," Chinese Journal of Building Ma-terials, vol. 8, pp. 197–201, 2005.

J. Xiao and Y. Lan, "Investigation on the tensile behavior of recycled aggregate concrete," Chinese Journal of Building Ma-terials, vol. 9, pp. 154–158, 2006.

Y. Xiao and X. Huang, "Study on concrete with recycled coarse aggregate concrete for pavement use," Chinese Journal of Highway and Transportation Technology, vol. 3, pp. 103–105, 2007.

J. Xiao and Y. Huang, "Residual compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete after high temperature," Chinese Journal of Building Materials, vol. 9, pp. 255–259, 2006.

J. Xiao, "Study on the complete stress–strain curves of recycled aggregate concrete under uniaxial compression," Journal of Tongji University, vol. 35, pp. 1445–1449, 2007.

J. Shi and Y. Xu, "Estimation and forecasting of concrete debris amount in China," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 49, pp. 147–158, 2006.

Shanghai Construction Standard Society (SCSS), "Technical Code for Application of Recycled Aggregate Concrete (DG/TJ07-008)," Shanghai, 2007.

RILEM, "Technical recommendations for the test and use of construction materials: determination of the fracture energy of mortar and concrete by means of three-point bending tests on notched beams," E&FN SPON, London, 1994, pp. 99–101.

RILEM, "Specifications for concrete with recycled aggregates," Materials and Structures, vol. 27, pp. 557–559, 1994.

J. Li, "Study on mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete," Master thesis, Tongji University, Shanghai, 2004.

JIS, "Recycled concrete using recycled aggregate," JIS Technical Report, TRA 0006, 2000.

M. H. Haraji, "Development of splice strength of reinforcing bars embedded in plain and fiber reinforced concrete," ACI Structural Journal, vol. 9, pp. 511–520, 1994.

T. C. Hansen, Recycling of demolished concrete and masonry, E&FN SPON, London, 1992.

M. D. Gavriletea, "Environmental impacts of sand exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market," Sustainability, vol. 9, no. 7, 2017.

S. A. Miller, A. Horvath, and P. J. M. Monteiro, "Impacts of booming concrete production on water resources worldwide," Nat. Sustain., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2018.

E. Iacovidou and P. Purnell, "Mining the physical infrastructure: opportunities, barriers, and interventions in promoting structural components reuse," Sci. Total Environ., vol. 557, pp. 791–807, 2016.

A. Favier et al., "A Sustainable Future for the European Cement and Concrete Industry: Technology assessment For Full Decarbonization of the Industry By 2050," European Climate Foundation, 2018.

W. Langer, "Sustainability of aggregates in construction," in Sustainability of Construction Materials, J. M. Khatib, Ed. 2nd ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2016, pp. 181–207.

A. Bisht and J. F. Gerber, "Ecological distribution conflicts (EDCs) over mineral extraction in India: an overview," Extr. Ind. Soc., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 548–563, 2017.

M. De Schepper, "Completely Recyclable Concrete for a More Environment-Friendly Construction," Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 2014, p. 234.

A. Kylili and P. A. Fokaides, "Policy trends for the sustainability assessment of construction materials: a review," Sustain. Cities Soc., vol. 35, pp. 280–288, 2017.

Y. Zhang et al., "A review of life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 209, pp. 115–125, 2019.

J.-. L. G´alvez-Martos et al., "Construction and demolition waste best management practice in Europe," Resour. Conserv. Recycl., vol. 136, pp. 166–178, 2018.

P. Ghisellini, M. Ripa, and S. Ulgiati, "Exploring environmental and economic costs and benefits of a circular economy ap-proach to the construction and demolition sector. A literature reviews," J. Clean. Prod., vol. 178, pp. 618–643, 2018.

Z. E. A. Tahar et al., "Rheology and strength of concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates as replacement of natural aggregates," Epitoanyag-J. Silicate Based Compos. Mater., vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 48–58, 2020.

A. P. Galvin et al., "Leaching assessment of concrete made of recycled coarse aggregate: physical and environmental char-acterisation of aggregates and hardened concrete," Waste Manage. (Oxford), vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1693–1704, 2014.

P. Purnell and A. Dunster, "Recycling of concrete," in Management, Recycling and Reuse of Waste Composites, V. Good-ship, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 569–591.

M. Safiuddin et al., "Use of recycled concrete aggregate in concrete: a review," J. Civ. Eng. Manag., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 796–810, 2013.

K. McNeil and T. H. K. Kang, "Recycled concrete aggregates: a review," Int. J. Concr. Struct. Mater., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 2013.

V. W. Y. Tam, M. Soomro, and A. C. J. Evangelista, "Quality improvement of recycled concrete aggregate by removal of residual mortar: a comprehensive review of approaches adopted," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 288, 2021.

S. Caijun et al., "Performance Enhancement of Recycled Concrete Aggregate. A Review," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 11, pp. 466–472, 2016.

C. J. Thomas, J. A. Setien, P. Polanco, and J. Alae, "Durability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 71, pp. 141–151, 2013.

B. Miguel, J. de B., J. P., and L. E., "Durability Performance of Concrete with Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Waste Plants," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 111, pp. 357–369, 2015.

D. Pedro, J. de Brito, and L. Evangelista, "Influence of the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates from Different Sources on Structural Concrete," Construction and building Material, vol. 71, pp. 141–151, 2014.

C. Laneyrie, A. B., M. F. G., and R. L., "Influence of recycled coarse aggregate on normal and high-performance concrete subjected to elevated temperatures," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 111, pp. 368–378, 2016.

C. Liang, T. Liu, and J. Xiao, "The damping property of recycled aggregate concrete," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 102, pp. 834–842, 2016.

S. S. P. Kapook and B. Singh, "Durability of self-compacting concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates and mineral admixtures," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 128, pp. 67–76, 2016.

R. V. Silvam, J. de Brito, and K. D. Ravinddra, "Establishing a relationship between modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112, pp. 2171–2186, 2016.

Z. B. Ahmed, R. Emmanuel, and L. Ahmed, "Plastic shrinkage and cracking risk of recycled aggregate concrete," Construc-tion and Building Materials, vol. 121, pp. 733–745, 2016.

British Standards Institute, "BS 4550 Part 1: Method of Testing Cement; Sampling," London, United Kingdom, 1978.

British Standards Institute, "BS 812-103.1: Methods for Testing Fine Aggregate," London, United Kingdom, 1985.

American Standards for Testing of Materials International, "ASTM C1602/ C1602 M-06: Standard specification for mixing water used for hydraulic cement concrete," West Conshohocken, PA 19438-2957, 2006.

S. Frandistou-Yannas, "Tests on waste concrete as aggregates for new concrete," Journal of American Concrete Institute, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 373–376, 1977.

O. A. U. Uche, "Influence of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) on compressive strength of plain concrete," Continental Journal of Engineering Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 30–36, 2008.

Indian Standards Institute, "IS 383:2016 - 'Coarse and Fine Aggregates for Concrete'."

Indian Standards Institute, "IS 2386 (Part 1):2016 - 'Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete: Particle Size and Shape'."

Indian Standards Institute, "IS 2386 (Part 4):2016 - 'Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete: Mechanical Properties'."

Indian Standards Institute, "IS 456:2000 - 'Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice'."

Indian Standards Institute, "IS 10262:2019 - 'Concrete Mix Proportioning - Guidelines'."

JMCE 044




How to Cite

D. ojha and Rajendra Kr. Srivastava, “Performance of Concrete Materials Containing Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Waste in India”, J. Mech. Constr. Eng., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–18, Apr. 2024.




Review Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>